Hand bone fractures
Hand bone fractures are the most common fractures in humans, most often occurring in the workplace, at home, or during sports and hobbies. Young men are the most susceptible population, and in the majority of cases the right hand is affected. Inadequate management of hand fractures results in significant morbidity and often in permanent disability. Hand bone fractures are classified as closed and open, stable and unstable, spiral, transverse or comminuted, as well as isolated hand bone fractures or fractures in combination with injuries to the joints, ligaments, tendons, or neurovascular structures. Diagnosis of hand bone fractures usually includes physical examination and X-ray imaging. Most fractures can be successfully managed by conservative treatment. Unstable and displaced fractures, as well as comminuted fractures, require surgical treatment, usually comprising reduction and osteosynthesis with the use of Kirschner wires, cerclage wire, screws, or plates and screws.