Compressive neuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, etc.)
Compressive neuropathies are closed injuries of peripheral nerves due to pressure in anatomical tunnels or spaces. The compression develops as a result of an increase of the volume content in these spaces (tumors, exostoses, tenosynovitis, etc.), or due to their shrinking or narrowing (posttraumatic fibrosis, etc.). The most common compressive neuropathy is carpal tunnel syndrome, and, less frequently, cubital tunnel syndrome, pronator syndrome, ulnar nerve compression in Guyon’s canal, posterior interosseous nerve syndrome, etc. Diagnosis is based on patient history, physical exam, and electromyoneurography (EMNG) findings. In cases of a milder form of compression syndrome the treatment may be conservative, whereas more severe forms require surgical management involving nerve decompression. The surgical treatment of decompression is performed under nerve-block anesthesia under tourniquet and with the use of surgical loupes.